Precariously-balanced rocks are helping to improve earthquake hazard predictions

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Precariously-balanced rocks are helping to improve earthquake hazard predictions
Precariously-balanced rocks are helping to improve earthquake hazard predictions

Precariously balanced rocks, or PBRs, can be found throughout the world, identified by slender rocks balanced on a pedestal boulder.

There are a few ways they can form. PBRs can be the result of landslides or retreating glaciers, which deposit the rocks in the unordinary formations. They can also manifest when softer blocks erode, leaving the stronger ones behind.

While they look delicate, some of them — like the Brimham Rocks in Yorkshire or Chiricahua National Monument in Arizona — have survived countless earthquakes over thousands of years. Now, researchers from Imperial College London are taking a closer look at PBRs, because they are showing promise in helping scientists determine earthquake hazards more accurately.

The study’s authors say the construction of PBRs provides insight on the upper limit of earthquake shaking that has occurred in the area.

It’s this information that can help create better estimate models.

“Rare earthquakes can be extremely destructive and costly, but existing hazard estimates for rare earthquake shaking are highly uncertain because observations are limited to historical records,” reads an excerpt from the study.


Anna Rood collecting a sample for cosmogenic surface exposure dating,which was used to deduce the fragility age of the PBR beneath her front foot. Courtesy: Anna Rood & Dylan Rood, Imperial College London

“At a site in Central California, we characterize the probability of toppling of such precariously balanced rocks and determine their age of formation. The precariously balanced rock constraints are used to directly eliminate estimates in the hazard model that are inconsistent with the preservation and antiquity of the rocks. These results dramatically improve the hazard model and significantly reduce uncertainties in the estimates.”

The findings are important because earthquake hazard models are needed to estimate the likelihood of


Google’s big step to disrupt and improve higher education

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  • A small piece of a large cake can be very filling.
  • Fortune favors the brave.
  • Technology has made things easier.

Bob Dylan sang: “For times that are changing.” That’s what I thought when I read that Google announced that they were going to start offering six-month courses to give people the skills to acquire jobs that are in demand. The cost? A staggering $ 300. All I can say is “It was about time.”

Like Alibaba CEO Jack Ma , I started my career as an English teacher. In 2008, I saw the writing on the wall with the change in the market and I reinvented myself. I read, listened, watched, attended, and absorbed every book, CD, and seminar that I could get my hands on to prepare for the second half of my career.

What frustrated me about the educational process was how slow it was to adjust to our rapidly changing world. Outside the walls of school, the Internet, smartphones, and social media have reshaped every aspect of our society. However, in the classroom, it was the same as always.

Then COVID-19 hit us like a ton of bricks and our gloves fell off.

Apple competed by revolutionizing the music industry, the mobile phone industry, the headphone industry and is now looking to take on the eyewear industry in 2021. Not to be left behind, Google has decided to take on a monopoly on higher education.

This is big. It is a 1.9 trillion dollar industry. If Google can cut just 1%, we are talking about $ 10 billion. I have no doubt that if they were successful in doing so, other companies would


Don’t think Dwayne Haskins can improve? Josh Allen’s career proves he can

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Washington quarterback Dwayne Haskins and Bills passer Josh Allen have had two entirely different starts to the 2020 season.

Haskins has been both underwhelming and unimpressive for the Washington Football Team, while Allen is off to a fantastic beginning with Buffalo and on a shortlist of early-season MVP candidates.

However, before Allen was one of the league’s most promising young passers, he — like Haskins — was a raw quarterback prospect with a big arm and not a lot of help around him.

After Haskins’ three-interception performance Sunday in Cleveland and overall rough start to 2020, many have begun to wonder if the 15th overall pick is capable of being the franchise quarterback Washington drafted him to be. Head coach Ron Rivera supported Haskins postgame, saying he was going to stick with the 23-year-old, but even he admitted a day later that there is a cutting off point, too.

But for those who already believe it’s time to move on from Haskins in D.C., it’s worth remembering that the quarterback’s outing on Sunday was just his 10th career start. Haskins is still raw and plenty talented, even if he hasn’t shown as much flash as the team would have liked thus far this season.

In fact, if you compare Haskins’ and Allen’s first 10 career starts side by side, it shows that it might be entirely too early to give up on the Washington quarterback.


Dwayne Haskins over his first 10 starts: 11 TDs, 6 INTs, 6.57 yards-per-attempt, 58.2% completion

Josh Allen over his first 10 starts: 7 TDs, 11 INTs, 6.37 yards-per-attempt, 52.3% completion

Allen’s numbers over his first 10 starts were clearly a lot less promising than Haskins’ are. However, there was no talk of the Bills getting ready to move on from their young signal-caller.

Instead, Buffalo


Methods To Improve Nursing Education

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Internet has expanded its dimensions like anything. As you can see, some youngsters have unfair benefits from the very beginning. Mother and father are the protection net for his or her children yet too a lot of them fail to comprehend this vital truth. More than ever, societal points are impacting our college students and their search for a meaningful and productive life.

Of course, timing has a huge half to play on the subject of placing a baby into regular (not worldwide) Spanish faculties. Most schools regret turning away college students, but with the scarcity of educating employees, that’s the only resolution that they can provide you with for the meantime.

These instructor-led environments are extra personal than on-line education environments, and now have the advantage of allowing for speedy suggestions each to and from pupil and teachers alike. The internet allows students to learn books and educational supplements at home.

These can provide an excellent education in Spain inside environments which can be managed, protected and which have excessive aspirations for his or her college students. New mathematical software such as Maple and Mathematica allows students to make a computer algebra computations more easily.

I) Education should provide the student with the fundamental data and basic abilities that she or he would require as a working member of the group. This involves studying by way of both theoretical parts of a course, in addition to social interplay with both instructors and different students.…


6 Ways To Improve Particular Education For All Kids With Particular Needs!

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It is surprising to know that there are an enormous variety of candidates that are being turned down in most nursing schools. Previous to moving onto the next stage in a subject they’re encouraged to mirror on the previous exercise prior to putting the speculation data into sensible skills i.e. they are given time to absorb the knowledge on a private foundation prior to reflecting on what has been taught and at last finishing up the bodily ability, not dissimilar to Kolb’s learning cycle.

Since conventional school college students are extra focus in their research as a lot of them are young and haven’t got family obligations and as many responsibilities as the adult learners do, they’ll have extra time to be allotted to their examine. To reply the primary question as to why mother and father needs to be involved in their child’s education, merely look at the numbers.

Cognitive skill energy and efficiency correlates straight with students’ ease of studying. If there aren’t qualified individuals to show the scholars then it may be a giant downside in the future. If these systems are complex, college students could select the ease of On-campus education rather than taking the additional effort and time necessary to grasp using online education methods.

Also, its working information has turn out to be a requirement in numerous fields, occupations and professions reminiscent of medicine and computing; as a consequence of which over a billion folks converse English to a minimum of a fundamental stage.

Through the planning phases answer the following questions, ‘What is their literacy stage?’ and ‘What is the most applicable teaching technique?’ The solutions assist in assessing the level at which the teachings are pitched. This subsequently will increase the ability-levels wanted of online education instructors, inserting better demand on educational …

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